Therapeutic Areas / Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System

We have brought our expertise gained from other therapies into the world of neurosciences, one of the most challenging areas in medicine.

The Body’s Control Panel

The central nervous system comprises of the brain, spinal cord and retina, and is the processing centre of the body. At Cipla, we have a diverse range of medication for a variety of common central nervous system disorders.

It’s OK not to be OK

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), South Africa has the sixth highest rate of suicide in Africa, with the data revealing that approximately 11.6 of every 100 000 people in the country completing suicide1. It is commonly accepted that the majority of suicides and suicide attempts occur among individuals who suffer from undiagnosed and untreated depression, with the WHO estimating that more than 300 million people are affected by depression worldwide2.

Considering these concerning statistics, about two years ago, Cipla started an educational campaign to create widespread awareness about the importance of mental health and to help eradicate stigma. We also wanted to emphasize that depression is in fact a medical condition and that mental health is equally important to physical health. Just as any other organ in the body can become ill or affected, so too can the brain. We wanted people to know that it’s OK not to be OK.

We hope to encourage honest, refreshing dialogues around mental health so that people don’t have to struggle in silence. As American actress Glenn Close stated, mental health needs “more sunlight, more candour, more unashamed conversation”.

Some of the signs and symptoms of depression include problems concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions, fatigue, feelings of guilt, hopelessness, insomnia, irritability, restlessness, loss of interest in things once pleasurable, overeating or appetite loss, persistent feelings of sadness and suicidal thoughts3.

Depression does not simply go away, and there is no shame in seeking professional help for it. Whether you are helping a friend, or need help yourself, you can always call the Cipla SADAG 24-hour mental health helpline on 0800 456 789 or via WhatsApp on 076 882 2775.

Lean On Me

Gesondheid, Prontuit - Depression Tips

Gesondheid, Prontuit - Depressie S01E02

Preserving Memories

As a result of advances in medication, globally, people are living longer4. While longer life expectancy is a positive trend, the focus on cognitive wellbeing becomes incredibly important, as dementia becomes increasingly probable in an ageing population.

While some organs, such as a heart or lung can be transplanted, and doctors can perform hip replacements, this is not possible for the brain; so the best option is to try and focus on cognitive reserve.

Dementia is a debilitating brain disorder and greatly impacts the affected person as well their family and/or caregivers. Not only does it take away precious memories, it disrupts the person’s life in numerous ways.

It is estimated that by 2050, 115 million cases of dementia are expected worldwide (a substantial increase from the estimated 44.4 million people globally that were living with the condition in 20135), so it is vital to increase awareness and understanding of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia.

Dementia Patient Story

Gesondheid, Prontuit - Dementia Tips

Gesondheid, Prontuit - Demensie S01E05

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that, although most frequently diagnosed during the school years, affects individuals across their lifespan6.

It is characterized by symptoms of inattention, overactivity, and/or impulsiveness that are age inappropriate, persistent, and pervasive1. In the long term, ADHD is associated with a significant risk of educational failure, interpersonal problems, and mental illness7.

Gesondheid, Prontuit - ADHD Tips

Gesondheid, Prontuit - ADHD S01E06

Anxiety

Experiencing anxiety occasionally is part and parcel of life, such as before a test, or when making an important decision. But anxiety disorders go beyond temporary worry or fear – it is excessive. Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders8. The symptoms can interfere with daily activities such as job performance, school work, and relationships9.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depressive disorder, is characterised by fluctuating moods and energy levels10. It is a highly debilitating psychiatric illness that may affect as many as 1 in every 25 persons11. People with the disorder have highly disruptive episodes, frequent recurrences, and severe psychosocial impairments – even when not symptomatic2. Although bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, the mood swings and other symptoms can be managed by following a treatment plan. In most cases, bipolar disorder is treated with medication and psychological counselling (psychotherapy).

Bipolar disorder (depression & mania) - causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Epilepsy

Epilepsy – also known as a seizure disorder – is the most common serious neurological disorder and is one of the world’s most prevalent noncommunicable diseases12. Epilepsy is characterized by an enduring (i.e., persisting) predisposition to generate seizures, unprovoked by any immediate central nervous system insult, and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of seizure recurrences13.

Epilepsy (generalized, focal) - an Osmosis Preview

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS)14. The cause is unknown, but it appears to involve a combination of genetic susceptibility and a nongenetic trigger, such as a virus, metabolism, or environmental factors, that together result in a self-sustaining autoimmune disorder that leads to recurrent immune attacks on the CNS1.

The course of MS is highly varied and unpredictable. In most patients, the disease is characterized initially by episodes of reversible neurological deficits, which is often followed by progressive neurological deterioration over time1.

Multiple sclerosis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by a large number of motor and non-motor features that can impact on function to a variable degree15. It affects the human central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems. The underlying pathological process progresses slowly but relentlessly and involves multiple neuronal systems16.

Rest tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and loss of postural reflexes are generally considered the cardinal signs of Parkinson’s1. Although Parkinson’s disease can’t be cured, medication might significantly improve the symptoms.

What is Parkinson's Disease?

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world’s population17. The cause of the disorder remains unknown. In its most common form, schizophrenia presents with paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations late in adolescence or in early adulthood1.

Schizophrenia - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Brand Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Therapeutic Area
CIPLA ABACAVIR LAMIVUDINE ABACAVIR, LAMIVUDINE HIV/AIDS
CORYX ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID, ASCORBICPSEUDOEPHEDRINE Colds and flu
ACITAB ACICLOVIR Dermatology
NEOTIGASON ACITRETIN Dermatology
OSTEOBON ALENDRONIC ACID Osteoporosis
GELACID ALGINIC ACID, CALCIUM, SODIUM Gastro
ZOPAX ALPRAZOLAM Neuroscience; Anxiety
CIPLAVASC AMLODIPINE Cardiology / heart health
BRONCOL AMMONIUM, DEXTROMETHORPHAN, PANTHENOL Colds and flu
AMOCLAN AMOXICILLIN, CLAVULANIC ACID Antibiotics
TEVA ANASTROZOLE ANASTROZOLE Oncology
ABIPIP ARIPIPRAZOLE Neuroscience; Schizophrenia
FIZZ C ASCORBIC ACID Vitamins and supplements
CHOCATON ASCORBIC ACID, BENZOIC ACID, CVITAMIN E Vitamins and supplements
AIRMUNE ASCORBIC ACID, BETACAROTENE, BZINC Vitamins and supplements
FIZZ B ASCORBIC ACID, BIOTIN, CALCIUMZINC Vitamins and supplements
CIPLATON ASCORBIC ACID, CALCIUM, COPPERZINC Vitamins and supplements
TARITO ATAZANAVIR, RITONAVIR HIV/AIDS
ATTENTRA ATOMOXETINE Neuroscience; ADHD
ASTOR ATORVASTATIN Cardiology / heart health
BC56 AZADIRACHTA INDICA, CASSIA TORZINC Wound care
AZATHIOPRINE AZATHIOPRINE Immunosuppressant
CIPLA AZITHROMYCIN AZITHROMYCIN Antibiotics
BECLATE BECLOMETASONE Respiratory/ Asthma
ORANIX BENZYDAMINE, CHLORHEXIDINE Colds and flu
SUDOCREM BENZYL ALCOHOL, BENZYL BENZOATZINC Dermatology
REPIVATE BETAMETHASONE Dermatology
BEZALIP BEZAFIBRATE Cardiology / heart health
TEVA BICALUTAMIDE BICALUTAMIDE Oncology
BLEOMYCIN BLEOLEM Oncology
BLEOLEM BLEOMYCIN Oncology
BUDEFLAM BUDESONIDE Respiratory/ Asthma
ACURATE CAFFEINE, CODEINE, DOXYLAMINE PARACETAMOL Pain
ABIC LEUCOVIRIN CALCIUM FOLINATE Oncology
MEROPENEM CARBAPENEM Antibiotics
TEVA CARBI-LEVO CARBIDOPA, LEVODOPA Neuroscience; Parkinson?s
CARBOSIN CARBOPLATIN Oncology
CARLOC CARVEDILOL Cardiology / heart health
CEFASYN CEFUROXIME AXETIL Antibiotics
ACUZYRT CETIRIZINE Allergy
CICLOVENT CICLESONIDE Respiratory/ Asthma
CIPLOXX CIPROFLOXACIN Antibiotics
DEPRAMIL CITALOPRAM Neuroscience; Depression
ALKAFIZZ CITRIC ACID, SODIUM, TARTARIC ACID Gastro
FERTOMID CLOMIFENE Women's Health
MEDASPOR CLOTRIMAZOLE Athlete's foot/ Fungal infections
ACUTUSSIVE CODEINE, GUAIFENESIN, PSEUDOEPTRIPROLIDINE Colds and flu
PYNMED CODEINE, PARACETAMOL, PROMETHAZINE Pain
COLCHICINE COLCHICINE Pain
ACULOID CYCLIZINE Colds and flu
BREATHEWELL CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS, EUCALGAULTHERIA PROCUMBENS Colds and flu
CIPLA ACTIN CYPROHEPTADINE Colds and flu
CIPLA CYPROTERONE CYPROTERONE Women's Health
GINETTE CYPROTERONE, ETHINYLESTRADIOL Sexual health; Contraception
LARACIT CYTARABINE Oncology
DANOGEN DANAZOL Women's Health
PARANVIR DARUNAVIR HIV/AIDS
ACUHIST DESLORATADINE Allergy
K-FENAK DICLOFENAC Colds and flu
MAXADERM DIFLUCORTOLONE, ISOCONAZOLE Athlete's foot/ Fungal infections
CIPLA DOCETAXEL DOCETAXEL Oncology
DALIMUNE DOLUTEGRAVIR HIV/AIDS
REYDIN DOLUTEGRAVIR, LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL HIV/AIDS
DONECEPT DONEPEZIL Neuroscience; Alzheimer's Disease
CIPLA DOXORUBICIN DOXORUBICIN Oncology
CIPLA EFAVIRENZ EFAVIRENZ HIV/AIDS
ODIMUNE EFAVIRENZ, EMTRICITABINE, TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL HIV/AIDS
DIDIVIR EMTRICITABINE, TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL HIV/AIDS
ENTIRO ENTEROCOCCUS MUNDTII, LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM Gastro
LEXAMIL ESCITALOPRAM Neuroscience; Depression
NESOPRAM ESOMEPRAZOLE Gastro
EPOSIN ETOPOSIDE Oncology
CIPLAFAM FAMCICLOVIR Dermatology
FEXO FEXOFENADINE Allergy
FILGRASTIM FILGRASTIM Biosimilars/ biologics
FINCAR FINASTERIDE Men's Health
CIPLA FLUCONAZOLE FLUCONAZOLE Athlete's foot/ Fungal infections
FLURACEDYL FLUOROURACIL Oncology
NUZAK FLUOXETINE Neuroscience; Depression
FLOMIST FLUTICASONE Allergy
SEREFLO FLUTICASONE, SALMETEROL Respiratory/ Asthma
FASTELEV FLUVESTRANT Oncology
FORATEC FORMOTEROL Respiratory/ Asthma
REMCEPT GALANTAMINE Neuroscience; Alzheimer's Disease
ONCOGEM GEMCITABINE Oncology
COPAXONE GLATIRAMER ACETATE Neuroscience; Multiple sclerosis
GLYGARD GLICLAZIDE Diabetes
ELECTROPAK GLUCOSE, POTASSIUM, SODIUM Gastro
GRANICIP GRANISETRON Oncology
FLEMSOLV HEDERA HELIX Colds and flu
IBUGESIC IBUPROFEN Colds and flu
IMAVEC IMATINIB Oncology
CIPLA INDAPAMIDE INDAPAMIDE Cardiology / heart health
NEOMINO INFANT MILKS Allergy
DP HALER INHALER DEVICE Respiratory/ Asthma
EMEX INVERT SUGAR, PHOSPHORIC ACID Gastro
IPVENT IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE Respiratory/ Asthma
DUOLIN IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE, SALBUTAMOL Respiratory/ Asthma
CIPLA IRINOTECAN IRINOTECAN Oncology
ACNETRET ISOTRETINOIN Dermatology
LACTEOL FORTE LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS Gastro
LAXETTE LACTULOSE Gastro
CIPLA LAMIVUDINE TENOFOVIR LAMIVUDINE TENOFOVIR HIV/AIDS
TRIPLAVAR LAMIVUDINE, NEVIRAPINE, ZIDOVUDINE HIV/AIDS
CIPLA LAMIVUDINE TENOFOVIR LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL HIV/AIDS
CIPLA DUOVIR LAMIVUDINE, ZIDOVUDINE HIV/AIDS
EPITEC LAMOTRIGINE Neuroscience; Epilepsy
LANSOLOC LANSOPRAZOLE Gastro
LUNAR LEFLUNOMIDE Pain
LENOLIDOMIDE LENOLIDOMIDE ARV
LERCANIDPINE LERCANIDIPINE Cardiology / heart health
EPIKEPP LEVETIRACETAM Neuroscience; Epilepsy
TAVALOXX LEVOFLOXACIN Antibiotics
LINEZOLID LINEZOLID Antibiotics
LONQUEX LIPEGILGRASTIM ONCOLOGY
CIPLA LOPERAMIDE LOPERAMIDE Colds and flu
LOPIMUNE LOPINAVIR, RITONAVIR HIV/AIDS
CIPLA LORATADINE LORATADINE Allergy
CIPLAZAR LOSARTAN Cardiology / heart health
PURGOPED MACROGOL(S), POTASSIUM, SODIUM Gastro
MAG SR MAGNESIUM Vitamins and supplements
ULTIMAG MAGNESIUM, ZINC Vitamins and supplements
CIPEX MEBENDAZOLE Colds and flu
COXFLAM MELOXICAM Pain
MEMOR MEMANTINE Neuroscience; Alzheimer's Disease
SALOFALK MESALAZINE Gastro
DIAPHAGE METFORMIN Diabetes
ABITREXATE METHOTREXATE Oncology
MIRADEP MIRTAZAPINE Neuroscience; Depression
DEPNIL MOCLOBEMIDE Neuroscience; Depression
NEXOMIST MOMETASONE Allergy
BETAVIT MULTIVITAMINS AND MINERALS Vitamins and supplements
MYCOPHENOLATE TEVA MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL Immunosuppressant
CIPALAT NIFEDIPINE Cardiology / heart health
PEAK FLOW NON-DISPOSABLE MEDICAL DEVICE Respiratory/ Asthma
IHEALTH NONE Diabetes
OLEXAR OLANZAPINE Neuroscience; Schizophrenia
LOKIT OMEPRAZOLE Gastro
ONBORT ONBORT Oncology
CIPLA ONDANSETRON ONDANSETRON Oncology
OXALIPLATIN PCH OXALIPLATIN Oncology
CIPLA PACLITAXEL PACLITAXEL Oncology
PRAZOLOC PANTOPRAZOLE Gastro
PARAFIZZ PARACETAMOL Colds and flu
XET PAROXETINE Neuroscience; Depression
CIPLASYL PERINDOPRIL Cardiology / heart health
COLO PREP PHOSPHORIC ACID Gastro
CIPLA PIOGLITAZONE PIOGLITAZONE Diabetes
RHEUGESIC PIROXICAM Pain
ULTIPOT POTASSIUM Vitamins and supplements
DERMADINE POVIDONE-IODINE Wound care
PREGABALIN PREGABALIN Neuroscience; Epilepsy
CYCLOGEST PROGESTERONE Women's Health
SEROQUEL QUETIAPINE Neuroscience; Schizophrenia
ULTAK RANITIDINE Gastro
AZILECT RASAGILINE Neuroscience; Parkinson?s
RISNIA RISPERIDONE Neuroscience; Schizophrenia
VUSOR ROSUVASTATIN Cardiology / heart health
ASTHAVENT SALBUTAMOL Respiratory/ Asthma
SOFLAX SENNOSIDES A&B Gastro
SERDEP SERTRALINE Neuroscience; Depression
SILDENAFIL CIPLA SILDENAFIL Sexual health; Erectile dysfunction
CIPLA SIMVASTATIN SIMVASTATIN Cardiology / heart health
AQUAMIST NASAL SPRAY SODIUM Allergy
SHWEET SUCRALOSE Diabetes
TACRUM TACROLIMUS Immunosuppressant
TAMOPLEX TAMOXIFEN Oncology
UROMAX TAMSULOSIN Men's Health
CIPLA TEICOPLANIN TEICOPLANIN Antibiotics
LAMISPOR TERBINAFINE Athlete's foot/ Fungal infections
RELICALM THEANINE Vitamins and supplements
TRIAMIST TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE Respiratory/ Asthma
URSOFALK URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID Gastro
TETANUS VACCINE, TETANUS Vaccines
VENLOR VENLAFAXINE Neuroscience; Depression
VINBLASTINE PCH VINBLASTINE Oncology
ABIC VINCRISTINE VINCRISTINE Oncology
CIPLA VINORELBINE VINORELBINE Oncology
CIPLA WARFARIN WARFARIN Cardiology / heart health
ZOMEDRON ZOLEDRONIC ACID Oncology
ZOPIVANE ZOPICLONE Neuroscience; Anxiety
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Therapeutic Area

References:

    1. World Health Organisation (WHO). World Health Statistics data visualizations dashboard. (2016). Available at: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.sdg.3-4-viz-2?lang=en
    2. World Health Organisation. Depression. 1–4 (2015). http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
    3. Sobin, C & Sackeim, H. Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression. Accessed online: https://bit.ly/3tgGX70
    4. WHO. Ageing and health. available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health 1–5 (2018).
    5. Prevalence of dementia. Alzheimer’s South Africa 2019 (2019).
    6. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html
    7. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Nonpharmacological Interventions for ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials of Dietary and Psychological Treatments. Accessed online: https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12070991
    8. US National Library of Medicine. Treatment of anxiety disorders. Accessed online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573566/
    9. National Institute of mental health. Anxiety disorders. Accessed online: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
    10. The Lancet. Bipolar disorder. Accessed online: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S014067361500241X
    11. American Psychological Association. Bipolar disorder. Accessed online: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-11035-010
    12. Scott, R., Lhatoo, S., and Sander, J. The treatment of epilepsy in developing countries: where do we go from here?. Accessed online: https://www.scielosp.org/article/ssm/content/raw/?resource_ssm_path=/media/assets/bwho/v79n4/v79n4a10.pdf
    13. Karger. The epidemiology of epilepsy. Accessed online: https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/503831
    14. Goldenberg, M. Multiple Sclerosis Review. Accessed online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351877/.
    15. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery and psychiatry. Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis. Accessed online: https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/79/4/368.short
    16. Braak, H. & Braak, E. Pathoanatomy of Parkinson’s disease. Accessed online: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/PL00007758
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